HTML5的Histroy API – meteoric_cry – 博客园

HTML5的Histroy API 

History API在各浏览器下的支持情况:

不支持

4.0+

5.0+

8.0+

不支持

比较典型的是GitHub,在点击代码文件夹和文件时,会发现它的url地址栏变换了标题栏变化了、前进后退按钮也变化了(跟新开了一个新页面感觉一样),但体验起来很平滑(外层框架的内容没有重新加载,例如:登录信息是否关注主人等),然后是ajax载入新内容。

history在HTML4的时代里,有如下几个方法和属性,应该很熟悉:

lengthback()、forward()、go([delta])

在HTML5中又添加了两个方法:

pushState(data, title[,url])replaceStage(data, this [,url])

需要注意的是在使用replaceStage,传入的url必须和当前页的协议所在域完全相同(即使不同的子域都不行),否则会提示安全错误

更多内容可以参考:

http://diveintohtml5.org/history.html

http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec-author-view/history.html

如果想在兼容其它老浏览器,可以使用History.js

这里写了一个测试实例,参考至:http://html5demos.com/history

因为URL变换了,而在刷新的时候页面又不能进行跳转,此时需要在自己的web服务器上写一些规则了(我本机使用的是nginx),在server_name为meteoric.com的vhost中添加如下规则:

location ~ ^/history/.*$ {        rewrite ^/history/.*$ /html5/history/index.html last;}

页面访问路径是:http://meteoric.com/history/

 

这样即使我刷新页面,所有以history开头的请求,都将转至http://meteoric.com/history/index.html

/=======/

1因为页面没有跳转,所以在点击链接的时候可以使用ajax请求并渲染数据(类似github的效果)

2进页面,可以获取到当前URL,然后正则取出histroy其后的内容,判定加载哪一种资源

页面完整的HTML代码:

<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta charset=utf-8 /> <meta name="viewport" content="width=620" /> <title>HTML5__History API</title>   <style>body {   font: normal 16px/20px "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, sans-serif;  background: rgb(237, 237, 236);  margin: 0;  margin-top: 40px;  padding: 0;}section, header, footer {  display: block;}#wrapper {  width: 600px;  margin: 0 auto;  background-color: #fff;  -moz-border-radius: 10px;  -webkit-border-radius: 10px;  border-radius: 10px;  border-top: 1px solid #fff;  padding-bottom: 76px;}h1 {  padding-top: 10px;}h2 {  font-size: 100%;  font-style: italic;}header, article > *, footer > * {  margin: 20px;}footer > * {  margin: 20px;  color: #999;}#status {  padding: 5px;  color: #fff;  background: #ccc;}#status.fail {  background: #c00;}#status.success {  background: #0c0;}#status.offline {  background: #c00;}#status.online {  background: #0c0;}li {  margin-bottom: 10px;}#examples {  padding-left: 20px;}#examples li {  list-style: square;  padding: 0;  margin: 0;}</style>  </head><body><section id="wrapper"><article>   <p id="status">HTML5 History API not supported</p>   <p>最后一次触发的事件: <em><span id="lastevent">(none)</span></em></p>   <p>点击下面的链接进行测试,点击后页面的URL发生变化,但重新刷新后依旧停留于此页面。</p>   <p>可以使用浏览器原生的前进、后退按钮</p>   <ul id="examples">     <li><a href="/history/first">first</a></li>     <li><a href="/history/second">second</a></li>     <li><a href="/history/third">third</a></li>     <li><a href="/history/fourth">fourth</a></li>   </ul>   <div id="output"></div> </article> </section><script>
   1:  
   2:  
   3: var addEvent = (function () {
   4:   if (document.addEventListener) {
   5:     return function (el, type, fn) {
   6:       if (el && el.nodeName || el === window) {
   7:         el.addEventListener(type, fn, false);
   8:       } else if (el && el.length) {
   9:         for (var i = 0; i < el.length; i++) {
  10:           addEvent(el[i], type, fn);
  11:         }
  12:       }
  13:     };
  14:   } else {
  15:     return function (el, type, fn) {
  16:       if (el && el.nodeName || el === window) {
  17:         el.attachEvent('on' + type, function () { return fn.call(el, window.event); });
  18:       } else if (el && el.length) {
  19:         for (var i = 0; i < el.length; i++) {
  20:           addEvent(el[i], type, fn);
  21:         }
  22:       }
  23:     };
  24:   }
  25: })();
  26:  
  27:  
  28:  
  29:  
  30: var $ = function (s) { return document.getElementById(s); },
  31:     state = $('status'),
  32:     lastevent = $('lastevent'),
  33:     urlhistory = $('urlhistory'),
  34:     examples = $('examples'),
  35:     output = $('output'),
  36:     template = '<p>URL: <strong>{url}</strong>, name: <strong>{name}</strong>, location: <strong>{location}</strong></p>',
  37:     data = { // imagine these are ajax requests :)
  38:       first : {
  39:         name: "张三",
  40:         location: "北京"
  41:       },
  42:       second: {
  43:         name: "李四",
  44:         location: "上海"
  45:       },
  46:       third: {
  47:         name: "王五",
  48:         location: "重庆"
  49:       },
  50:       fourth: {
  51:         name: "小六",
  52:         location: "江苏,南京"
  53:       }
  54:     };
  55:  
  56: function reportEvent(event) {
  57:   lastevent.innerHTML = event.type;
  58: }
  59:  
  60: function reportData(data) {
  61:   output.innerHTML = template.replace(/(:?\{(.*?)\})/g, function (a,b,c) {
  62:     return data[c];
  63:   });
  64: }
  65:  
  66: //检测浏览器对此特性的支持情况
  67: !(function() {
  68:     if (typeof history.pushState === 'undefined') {
  69:       state.className = '当前浏览器不支持HTML5 History API';
  70:     } else {
  71:       state.className = 'success';
  72:       state.innerHTML = '当前浏览器支持HTML5 History API';
  73:     }
  74: })();
  75:  
  76: addEvent(examples, 'click', function (event) {
  77:   var title;
  78:   
  79:   event.preventDefault();
  80:   if (event.target.nodeName == 'A') {
  81:     title = event.target.innerHTML;
  82:     data[title].url = event.target.getAttribute('href'); // slightly hacky (the setting), using getAttribute to keep it short
  83:     history.pushState(data[title], title, event.target.href);
  84:     reportData(data[title]);
  85:   }
  86: });
  87:  
  88: addEvent(window, 'popstate', function (event) {
  89:   var data = event.state;
  90:   reportEvent(event);
  91:   reportData(event.state || { url: "unknown", name: "undefined", location: "undefined" });
  92: });
  93:  
  94: addEvent(window, 'hashchange', function (event) {
  95:   reportEvent(event);
  96: });
  97:  
  98: addEvent(window, 'pageshow', function (event) {
  99:   reportEvent(event);
 100: });
 101:  
 102: addEvent(window, 'pagehide', function (event) {
 103:   reportEvent(event);
 104: });
 105:  

</script></body></html>

因为需要web服务器的支持,所以上述效果无法在blog中进行预览需有兴趣,可搭建一个简单的环境进行测试~

如果有兴趣浏览兼容ie6+(无定时器)的history,可以阅读人人网前端开发人员的这篇文章:http://jingwei.li/blog/?p=183

之前我也写过一篇相关的文章:”不使用定时器实现的onhashchange ”,代码有参阅人人网前台脚本(一时好奇就右击源码大致扫了一下)

 

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